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By Edward J. Lenik

The Indians of northeastern North the United States are recognized to us essentially via reviews and outlines written by way of ecu explorers, clergy, and settlers, and during archaeological facts. an extra priceless resource of knowledge is the translation of rock paintings photos and their courting to local peoples for recording useful issues or info, as expressions in their legends and religious traditions, or as easy doodling or graffiti. the pictures during this publication attach us on to the Indian peoples of the Northeast, in general Algonkian tribes inhabiting jap Pennsylvania, Maryland and the reduce Potomac River Valley, manhattan, New Jersey, the six New England States, and Atlantic Canada. Lenik offers a whole diversity of rock paintings appearances within the research sector, together with a few dendroglyphs, pictographs, and a range of moveable rock gadgets. via supplying a whole research and synthesis of the information, together with the kinds and distribution of the glyphs, and interpretations in their aspiring to the local peoples, Lenik unearths a wealth of recent details at the tradition and lifeways of the Indians of the Northeast.


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The grooves are semi-cylindric, and on occasion have a intensity of part an inch or extra. My copies have been taken via putting sheets of paper at the Figures and coloring the parts mendacity instantly over the grooves. hence, the outlines, if impolite, are devoted and of complete measurement. The Porter and Boyd money owed of the Bald Friar Petroglyphs it seems that spurred extra curiosity and study into the location. In 1877, Professor P. Frazer, Jr. , a geologist, investigated the positioning and thus released a close file of his findings. He defined the positioning of the petroglyphs, which have been on islands within the river, noting that almost all of the islands have been composed of chlorite schists (Frazer 1880:92). Professor Frazer stated that each huge boulder appeared to include glyphs yet that Miles Island (a. ok. a. Bald Friar Island) contained the “principal inscriptions” (Frazer 1880:92, 94). He saw that a few of the rocks containing glyphs were indifferent from 52 / bankruptcy four their unique destinations by means of the motion of water and ice and by way of people who blasted elements of the rocks to supply rock for construction “fish pots. ” He famous that the glyphs suffered from erosion to boot. In his file, Professor Frazer defined many of the layout motifs at the rocks. He recorded that “amongst different issues they signify the traditional Indian serpent’s head with various variety of strains. ” He additionally acknowledged, “some of the indicators subsequent often habitual have been concentric circles. in certain cases 4 and in different situations a lesser quantity” (Frazer 1880:95). together with his document, Frazer released 4 pictures of the rocks and glyphs, together with a common view of Bald Friar Rock and close-up images of the glyphs. In 1881, F. G. Galbraith said that a huge island within the river, Bald Friar Rock, which had many petroglyphs on it, was once partly blasted away and the stone used to build a shad fishery (Galbraith 1881:642). Galbraith acknowledged that many carvings have been destroyed and that he came across “traces” of them on fragments that have been scattered over the higher finish of the island. He additional that a number of the carvings have been “undoubtedly of a really distant date” and were eroded. Galbraith got rid of a slab of rock that contained a carved geometric layout and despatched it to the Smithsonian establishment in addition to drawings of cups and grooves and concentric circles (Rau 1882:61–62, Figures forty six, forty seven, 49–51). One extra specialist research of the petroglyphs used to be made within the 19th century. In 1888 and 1889, Dr. W. J. Hoffman of the Smithsonian establishment visited the positioning and produced tracings and measurements of a number of of the glyphs. 4 of Hoffman’s drawings have been released in Garrick Mallery’s booklet Picture-Writing of the yankee Indians. They have been a panel of traces, dots, and concentric circles from the pinnacle of Bald Friar Rock, different concentric-circle designs from in different places on that rock, which have been just like these formerly drawn through Galbraith in 1881, and a grid-like layout (Mallery 1893:83–86). The investigations of the petroglyphs at Bald Friar brought up above have been it sounds as if now not the earliest to have taken position on the web site.

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